Surfaces and interfaces, also referred to as phase boundaries, play an important role in material performance for the application in nanodevices. When the surface of a material comes in contact with another phase, interaction occurs at the interface between the phases which initiates the alteration of properties at the phase boundaries. Therefore, the analysis of the surface properties plays a crucial role in understanding the fundamental insights of crystal growth, reaction kinetics and basis for engineering the nanoparticles as well as interpreting the quantum physics and resolving the theoretical prejudice.
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have drawn enormous research interests due to their intriguing physical properties along with potential applications in the next generation nano-devices. The growth of some 2D materials, such as, Xenes, requires supporting substates which have strong impact on the formation of these materials and their properties. Hence, investigating the surface properties of these types of 2D materials has become quite essential. Recently invented 2D boron (B) sheet which is known as borophene, is considered as a promising material; consists of B atoms arranged in triangular lattice with hollow hexagons. The synthesis of 2D B sheet is still challenging and strongly dependent on the supporting substrates and their crystalline faces, and other factors including temperature, deposition rate etc. during preparation. It is evident from surface analysis by Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) condition that completely different types of B structures are formed on transition metal substrates with different crystalline faces. The dependency of B growth on substrates creates the opportunities to realize the best substrate for the growth of 2D B sheet which can be employed in future applications.